International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 2016, 17(3-4), DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2016.078600
Abstract: Formulation and implementation of appropriate policies in terms of regulatory regimes and market-based policy structures are essential in order to address the global e-waste crisis. In India, e-waste attracts no special attention concerning its collection, handling, recycling, treatment and disposal. These efforts are still at an embryonic stage in the country. The paper documents the current policy level initiatives in India in terms of regulatory regimes. Further, it tries to figure out applicable market-driven policy suggestions relevant to e-waste in India - a novel approach in the e-waste management scenario in the country. The paper concludes that in India, policy initiatives related to e-waste are still inadequate and urgent needs arise to formulate e-waste management strategies that are locale specific. Environmentally acceptable e-waste management could only be ensured by establishment of appropriate e-waste policies and defining the collection, segregation, dismantling, recycling, treatment and disposal standards.
Emerging Trends in Photodegradation of Petrochemical Wastes: A Review
by P Singh, A Ojha, Anwesha Borthakur, R Singh, D. Lahiry, D Tiwary, & PK Mishra
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2016, DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7373-y
Abstract: Various human activities like mining and extraction of mineral oils have been used for the modernization of society and well-beings. However, the by-products such as petrochemical wastes generated from such industries are carcinogenic and toxic, which had increased environmental pollution and risks to human health several folds. Various methods such as physical, chemical and biological methods have been used to degrade these pollutants from wastewater. Advance oxidation processes (AOPs) are evolving techniques for efficient sequestration of chemically stable and less biodegradable organic pollutants. In the present review, photocatalytic degradation of petrochemical wastes containing monoaromatic and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons has been studied using various heterogeneous photocatalysts (such as TiO2, ZnO and CdS. The present article seeks to offer a scientific and technical overview of the current trend in the use of the photocatalyst for remediation and degradation of petrochemical waste depending upon the recent advances in photodegradation of petrochemical research using bibliometric analysis. We further outlined the effect of various heterogeneous catalysts and their ecotoxicity, various degradation pathways of petrochemical wastes, the key regulatory parameters and the reactors used. A critical analysis of the available literature revealed that TiO2 is widely reported in the degradation processes along with other semiconductors/nanomaterials in visible and UV light irradiation. Further, various degradation studies have been carried out at laboratory scale in the presence of UV light. However, further elaborative research is needed for successful application of the laboratory scale techniques to pilot-scale operation and to develop environmental friendly catalysts which support the sustainable treatment technology with the "zero concept" of industrial wastewater. Nevertheless, there is a need to develop more effective methods which consume less energy and are more efficient in pilot scale for the demineralization of pollutant.
India's Lost Rivers and Rivulets
by Anwesha Borthakur & Pardeep Singh
Energy, Ecology and Environment, 2016, 1(5), 310–314.
Abstract: The manuscript highlights the tragedy of India's extinct or near-extinct rivers and rivulets (i.e. very small rivers or streams) passing through some of the major Indian cities. These rivers were once considered healthy and sound systems supporting the population of a city by sustaining important sectors such as agriculture, pisciculture, transportation, industries, recreation among several others. Our motive is to attract attention of the scientific community, policymakers, government and non-governmental organizations and native dwellers towards this grave concern, where once sound ecosystems are today being damaged beyond the opportunity of rejuvenation. We have considered the instances of six Indian rivers and rivulets: the Bharalu and Bahini (Guwahati), Varuna and Assi (Varanasi) and Mula and Mutha (Pune). Today, most of these rivers are reduced to mere 'nallahs' or 'sewers' due to rapid, unplanned and haphazard developmental activities and urbanization processes ubiquitous in major Indian cities. For instance, River Assi in Varanasi is, today, almost no more. Encroachment is a common problem on all these river banks which results in extraordinary reduction in the width of the rivers and rivulets. As a consequence, the water flows to the banks of the rivers in no time even during a short rainfall episode. The deteriorating river systems in India pose major challenges to the sustenance of cities situated along them. Most of the pollution prevention initiatives by the central or the state governments are directed towards the major rivers such as the Ganga, practically ignoring the equally vital rivulets. Although local governments of most of these cities have undertaken initiatives to address the associated problems, the outcome of the same is highly dubious.