by Jaspertap Singh & V.V. Krishna
Science Technology and Society, 2015, 20(3): 300-321.
In Special Issue: Return from Migration and Circulation of Highly Educated People: The Never Ending Brain Drain [Guest editors: J. Gaillard, A-M. Gaillard and V.V. Krishna]
Abstract: The concepts of brain drain, gain and circulation in the Indian context presents a fruitful sociological and policy relevant experience to understand the phenomena as it unfolded over many decades. As this essay demonstrates, 1960s to 1980s emerged as the phase of brain drain. The country witnessed considerable economic growth and development of S&T infrastructure coupled with the emergence of science community and intellectual climate in the 1990s. The development reversed the process of brain drain. A historical perspective is adopted which presents ample data and empirical evidence to map the evolution and operation of three phases. Towards mapping the last phase of brain circulation, it is shown that the country embarked on the development of ICT software sector and become globally relevant and competitive. In an unexpected way the growth and dynamics of this high technology service oriented sector has unravelled the process of brain drain transforming it into brain circulation.