We are pleased to present the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2016 on the theme 'Winning with Global Innovation'. The geography and process of innovation have changed considerably since the first GII. Science and research and development (R&D) are now more open, collaborative, and geographically dispersed. R&D efforts are simultaneously more globalized and more localized while an increasing variety of actors in emerging countries contributes to enrich the innovation landscape. Arguably, everyone stands to gain from global innovation. More resources are now spent on innovation and related factors globally than at any other given point in human history. Thus far, however, innovation has sometimes not been portrayed as a global win-win proposition. Two factors explain this state of affairs: First, evidence regarding the organization and outcomes of the new global innovation model is lacking. Second, governments and institutions need to approach global innovation as a positive-sum proposition and tailor policies accordingly. The 2016 edition of the GII is dedicated to this theme. The report aims to contribute an analysis of global innovation as a win-win proposition and so facilitate improved policy making. Over the last nine years, the GII has established itself as both a leading reference on innovation and a 'tool for action' for decision makers. The launch events of the GII rotate across capitals of the world to ensure visibility of this data-driven exercise and a high degree of implementation on the ground. After a launch hosted by the Australian government in 2014, in 2015 the UK's then Minister for Intellectual Property, Baroness Neville-Rolfe, hosted the launch of the GII in London. Following the 2016 global launch, regions and countries will use the GII as a tool for action as in previous years. In addition, the theme chosen for the 2016 edition of the GII and the indicators themselves can make a contribution to the debates on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in November 2015.
We thank our Knowledge Partners, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), du, and A.T. Kearney and IMP3rove – European Innovation Management Academy for their support of this year's report. Likewise, we thank our prominent Advisory Board, which has been enriched by two new members this year: Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and Pedro Wongtschowski, Member of the Board of Directors of Ultrapar Participações S.A. and of Embraer S.A.; Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Brazilian Enterprise for Research and Innovation (EMBRAPII) and of the Brazilian Association of Innovative Companies (ANPEI).
We hope that the collective efforts of innovation actors using the GII will continue to pave the way for better innovation policies around the world.
Francis Gurry | Director General, WIPO
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Global Innovation Index 2016: Winning with Global Innovation
Chapter 2: A Bigger Bang for the Buck: Trends, Causes, and Implications of the Globalization of Science and Technology
Chapter 3: Technology-Driven Foreign Direct Investment within the Global South
Chapter 4: Innovating Together? The Age of Innovation Diplomacy
Chapter 5: Local Needs, Global Challenges: The Meaning of Demand-Side Policies for Innovation and Development
Chapter 6: Becoming a Global Player by Creating a New Market Category: The Case of AMOREPACIFIC
Chapter 7: Radical Innovation Is Collaborative, Disruptive, and Sustainable
Chapter 8: The Management of Global Innovation: Business Expectations for 2020
Chapter 9: Global Corporate R&D to and from Emerging Economies
Chapter 10: From Research to Innovation to Enterprise: The Case of Singapore
Chapter 11: National Innovation Systems Contributing to Global Innovation: The Case of Australia
Chapter 12: Leveraging Talent Globally to Scale Indian Innovation
Chapter 13: How to Design a National Innovation System in a Time of Global Innovation Networks: A Russian Perspective